See the Lok map. Norumbega is clearly marked, on this map of 1582 by Michael Lok, in the location of modern New England.
The Lok map has the names of J. Cabot, 1497 and Jac. Cartier, 1535. The rivers and terrain features around Norumbega are similar to the New England terrain today.
More important is the name of Johannis, a Norwegian Captain, who sailed up the Hudson River in 1476. Columbus may have been on board the ship.
Richard Hakluyt knew what was on the map when he included the map in "Divers Voyages touching the Discoveries of America, London, 1582."
A similar, but better, drawing of Norubega was made in Rome on a map by Bolognini Zalterij in 1595.
0n both maps Norumbega is as prominent as Canada. I.e. if Canada existed, then so did Norumbega. On neither map is there an attempt to connect Norumbega to Vikings.
So the words,
"inextricably connected with attempts to demonstrate Viking incursions in New England." are misleading. They imply that the name "Norumbega was found by scholars who attempted, but did not succeed, to connect Norumbega to Vikings.
Norumbega was a correctly named location in America before AD 1600 without any indication of Vikings.
Today modern scholars have repeatedly demonstrated close valid connections between Norumbega and Vikings in New England:
The French called the people in Norumbege, "Nauset."
[If the French silent "t" is not voiced, then the word "Nauset"
sounds like "Norse."]
The Nauset spoke/speak Old Norse.
Many New Enland place names are Old Norse, including Massachusetts, Connecticut, Narragansett, and Wampanoag,
The Nauset origin stories included ancient migration from iceland and
The Nauset had/have Norse DNA. See Gene Park.
The evidence indicates Norumbega was an established Norse settlement in America in 1497. The most knowledgable scholars of America in 1500 knew that Norumbega was located in what would become New England. Those scholars did not know that the name was associated with Norse.
The names Norumbega and Nauset are not found on English maps after John Smith's voyage in 1614.
Modern multiple attempts to verify that Norumbega was, in fact, a Norse territory have repeatedly produced valid results, which have been ignored by the social scientists.
There is a reason a name is ignored; i.e. maybe to cover up and erase the knowledge that the Norse were in America since 1497.
The evidence implies that the 17th century English accepted the Columbus was first myth, which they knew was not correct, in order to deny Norse presence in North America. The issues were the Doctrine of Discovery and the English Charters, which stipulated that the English could not settle where there were Christians already settled.
Any evidence that Norse were in Norumbega was a serious concern for the Puritans and the the 17th century English.
Erasing, covering up, or ignoring the Norse presence in America became an all consuming paradigm that has blocked acceptance of evidence about ANY explorer or migration, which came to North America before Columbus.